Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) is a relatively new concept that falls under the Autism Spectrum Umbrella. It is characterised by a need to avoid everyday demands and expectations. Because of this it can lead to disruptive behaviours such as meltdowns, aggression, and avoidance. Unfortunately, research suggests that the strategies frequently used for Autism are often ineffective and counter-productive for a child with a PDA profile. This can result in children with PDA struggling in the school environment and being at risk of exclusion.
What is Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA)?
PDA is a condition where individuals experience high levels of anxiety, particularly when faced with demands and expectations. People with PDA have a strong desire to maintain control and can be extremely resistant to being told what to do, even when the demands are reasonable.
Signs of PDA:
The signs of PDA may vary from person to person, but there are some common traits to look out for, including refusal to follow instructions, difficulty with transitions, need for control, social anxiety, and meltdowns. It is important to note that individuals with PDA may have apparent strengths in their language and communication profile, making it easy for teachers to miss making the necessary accommodations for them and to forget to look at what is driving the behaviour.
Ways to support individuals with PDA:
Supporting individuals with PDA can be challenging, but there are some strategies that can help. Here are some ways to support individuals with PDA:
- Use clear, concise language: When giving instructions, it is important to use clear and concise language. Avoid using ambiguous or abstract language that could be misinterpreted.
- Give choices: Giving individuals with PDA a sense of control over their environment can help reduce anxiety. Offer choices whenever possible to help them feel empowered.
- Use visual aids: Visual aids, such as pictures or schedules, can help individuals with PDA understand what is expected of them and reduce anxiety.
- Be flexible: Flexibility is key when supporting individuals with PDA. Be willing to make adjustments to routines or expectations to accommodate their needs.
- Provide a safe space: It is important to provide individuals with PDA with a safe space where they can retreat when feeling overwhelmed. This could be a quiet room or an area where they feel comfortable.
- Seek professional help: It is important to seek professional help from a qualified healthcare professional who has experience in working with individuals with PDA. They can provide tailored advice and support based on the individual’s needs.
Effective strategies for children with PDA:
Children with PDA require a tailored approach that takes into account their unique challenges and needs. The following strategies can be effective in supporting children with PDA:
Providing a Structured and Predictable Environment
Children with PDA thrive in a structured and predictable environment that provides them with a clear understanding of what is expected of them. It is essential to establish routines and provide clear and concise instructions to minimize anxiety and stress.
Offering Choices and Flexibility
Providing choices and flexibility allows children with PDA to feel in control and reduces their anxiety. It is essential to offer choices in a way that provides clear boundaries, such as offering a choice of two acceptable options.
Using a Strengths-Based Approach
Using a strengths-based approach focuses on the child’s strengths and interests, which can improve their self-esteem and motivation. It is essential to identify their strengths and provide opportunities to use them in the learning process.
Providing Opportunities for the Child to have Control and Autonomy
Providing opportunities for the child to have control and autonomy over their learning process can increase their engagement and motivation. This can include allowing the child to choose their learning goals or how they complete their work.
Children and teenagers in particular with PDA require appropriate support and accommodations in the school environment. THis is to ensure they can access the education and support they need to thrive. Educators must understand the impact of PDA on education and implement effective strategies that are tailored to the unique needs and challenges of children with PDA. By providing a structured and predictable environment, offering choices and flexibility, using a strengths-based approach, and providing opportunities for the child to have control and autonomy, we can support children with PDA to succeed in the school environment.